filling out the nomination forms in local stores and posting it in the nomination box 82 total views, 1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis8 Over the past four years these partnerships have raised over £5 million for local charities, and generated over 7,000 days of volunteer support from staff.Last year over 100,000 nominations were made. Over 1,000 Sainsbury’s stores are each inviting nominations of local charities to be their charity of the year. Nominations are open from 1 to 14 May 2013.For the past five years Sainsbury’s stores have partnered with a local charity of their choice for 12 months. Each charity benefits from fundraising and volunteering by staff. Each store chooses its charity in May. How to nominateNominations for Sainsbury’s Local Charity can be made by Sainsbury’s staff or customers by: Advertisement Howard Lake | 4 May 2013 | News downloading and completing the nomination form and posting it in the local store emailing your nomination to [email protected] Include the name and address of your local store, the charity’s contact details, and the reason you are nominating that charity. Nominations for Sainsbury’s local stores’ charity of the year close on 14 May AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis8 About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving.
Education Vernier Launches its Spring 2015 Data-Collection Workshop Series for Science and STEM Educators From STAFF REPORTS Published on Friday, January 9, 2015 | 11:34 am Get our daily Pasadena newspaper in your email box. Free.Get all the latest Pasadena news, more than 10 fresh stories daily, 7 days a week at 7 a.m. Pasadena will be one of the 34 nationwide stops for Vernier Software and Technologyâ€™s free workshops across America to help science and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) educators integrate data-collection technology into their curriculum, it was announced today.The tour is expected to stop in Pasadena on April 16.During each four-hour workshop, educators will engage in hands-on training using Vernier’s award-winning technology, including its Go Wireless Temp, the first in a family of wireless sensors for use with iPad and compatible mobile devices.“Our workshops provide educators with a free, hands-on professional development opportunity that allows them to learn new and exciting ways to deliver students an engaging science or STEM education,” said David Vernier, co-founder of Vernier and a former physics teacher.“Educators can take the skills and best practices learned in the workshops and apply them as part of their classroom instruction to help students master the practices, ideas and concepts detailed in the Next Generation State Standards,â€™â€™ Vernier said.During the workshops, training specialists provide attendees with guidance as they explore classroom-ready experiments they can use in their physics, biology, chemistry, environmental and Kâ€“8 science classes.Attendees have the option of earning two (quarter) graduate science credit hours through the Portland State University Center for Science Education. Each workshop also includes a light meal and an electronic copy of Vernier’s Workshop Training Manual, which includes ready-to-use lab handouts for all science disciplines.To register for a Vernier data-collection workshop go to http://www.vernier.com/training/workshops. Business News EVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,PCC – EducationVirtual Schools PasadenaDarrell Done EducationHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * Top of the News More Cool Stuff 0 commentsShareShareTweetSharePin it Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday Community News HerbeautyCostume That Makes Actresses Beneath Practically UnrecognizableHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty10 Reasons Why Ultimatums Are Unhealthy For RelationshipsHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyNow She’s 19 – Look At Her Transformation! Incredible!HerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyA Mental Health Chatbot Which Helps People With DepressionHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyIs It Bad To Give Your Boyfriend An Ultimatum?HerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyThese Are 15 Great Style Tips From Asian WomenHerbeautyHerbeauty Subscribe Community News Pasadena’s ‘626 Day’ Aims to Celebrate City, Boost Local Economy Make a comment Name (required) Mail (required) (not be published) Website First Heatwave Expected Next Week Home of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadena
Community News Herbeauty8 Easy Exotic Meals Anyone Can MakeHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyHe Is Totally In Love With You If He Does These 7 ThingsHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty12 Female Fashion Trends That Guys Can’t StandHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyNutritional Strategies To Ease AnxietyHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyYou Can’t Go Past Our Healthy Quick RecipesHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyWant To Seriously Cut On Sugar? You Need To Know A Few TricksHerbeautyHerbeauty In this illustration, NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover uses the Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry (PIXL). Located on the turret at the end of the rover’s robotic arm, the X-ray spectrometer will help search for signs of ancient microbial life in rocks. Credit: NASA/JPL-CaltechNASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance rover has a challenging road ahead: After having to make it through the harrowing entry, descent, and landing phase of the mission on Feb. 18, it will begin searching for traces of microscopic life from billions of years back. That’s why it’s packing PIXL, a precision X-ray device powered by artificial intelligence (AI).Short for Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry, PIXL is a lunchbox-size instrument located on the end of Perseverance’s 7-foot-long (2-meter-long) robotic arm. The rover’s most important samples, according to a story produced by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, will be collected by a coring drill on the end of the arm, then stashed in metal tubes that Perseverance will deposit on the surface for return to Earth by a future mission.JPL, which is managed for NASA by Caltech, built and manages operations of the Perseverance and Curiosity rovers.Nearly every mission that has successfully landed on Mars, from the Viking landers to the Curiosity rover, has included an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer of some kind. One major way PIXL differs from its predecessors is in its ability to scan rock using a powerful, finely-focused X-ray beam to discover where — and in what quantity — chemicals are distributed across the surface.“PIXL’s X-ray beam is so narrow that it can pinpoint features as small as a grain of salt. That allows us to very accurately tie chemicals we detect to specific textures in a rock,” said Abigail Allwood, PIXL’s principal investigator at JPL.Rock textures will be an essential clue when deciding which samples are worth returning to Earth. On our planet, distinctively warped rocks called stromatolites were made from ancient layers of bacteria, and they are just one example of fossilized ancient life that scientists will be looking for.PIXL requires pictures of its rock targets to autonomously position itself. Light diodes encircle its opening and take pictures of rock targets when the instrument is working at night. Using artificial intelligence, PIXL relies on the images to determine how far away it is from a target to be scanned. Credit: NASA/JPL-CaltechPIXL requires pictures of its rock targets to autonomously position itself. Light diodes encircle its opening and take pictures of rock targets when the instrument is working at night. Using artificial intelligence, PIXL relies on the images to determine how far away it is from a target to be scanned. Credit: NASA/JPL-CaltechAn AI-Powered Night OwlTo help find the best targets, PIXL relies on more than a precision X-ray beam alone. It also needs a hexapod — a device featuring six mechanical legs connecting PIXL to the robotic arm and guided by artificial intelligence to get the most accurate aim. After the rover’s arm is placed close to an interesting rock, PIXL uses a camera and laser to calculate its distance. Then those legs make tiny movements — on the order of just 100 microns, or about twice the width of a human hair — so the device can scan the target, mapping the chemicals found within a postage stamp-size area.A device with six mechanical legs, the hexapod is a critical part of the PIXL instrument aboard NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover. The hexapod allows PIXL to make slow, precise movements to get closer to and point at specific parts of a rock’s surface. This GIF has been considerably sped up to show how the hexapod moves. Credit: NASA/JPL-CaltechA device with six mechanical legs, the hexapod is a critical part of the PIXL instrument aboard NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover. The hexapod allows PIXL to make slow, precise movements to get closer to and point at specific parts of a rock’s surface. This GIF has been considerably sped up to show how the hexapod moves. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech“The hexapod figures out on its own how to point and extend its legs even closer to a rock target,” Allwood said. “It’s kind of like a little robot who has made itself at home on the end of the rover’s arm.”Then PIXL measures X-rays in 10-second bursts from a single point on a rock before the instrument tilts 100 microns and takes another measurement. To produce one of those postage stamp-size chemical maps, it may need to do this thousands of times over the course of as many as eight or nine hours.That timeframe is partly what makes PIXL’s microscopic adjustments so critical: The temperature on Mars changes by more than 100 degrees Fahrenheit (38 degrees Celsius) over the course of a day, causing the metal on Perseverance’s robotic arm to expand and contract by as much as a half-inch (13 millimeters). To minimize the thermal contractions PIXL has to contend with, the instrument will conduct its science after the Sun sets.“PIXL is a night owl,” Allwood said. “The temperature is more stable at night, and that also lets us work at a time when there’s less activity on the rover.”PIXL opens its dust cover during testing at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. One of seven instruments on NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover, PIXL is located on the end of the rover’s robotic arm. Credit: NASA/JPL-CaltechX-rays for Art and ScienceLong before X-ray fluorescence got to Mars, it was used by geologists and metallurgists to identify materials. It eventually became a standard museum technique for discovering the origins of paintings or detecting counterfeits.“If you know that an artist typically used a certain titanium white with a unique chemical signature of heavy metals, this evidence might help authenticate a painting,” said Chris Heirwegh, an X-ray fluorescence expert on the PIXL team at JPL. “Or you can determine if a particular kind of paint originated in Italy rather than France, linking it to a specific artistic group from the time period.”For astrobiologists, X-ray fluorescence is a way to read stories left by the ancient past. Allwood used it to determine that stromatolite rocks found in her native country of Australia are some of the oldest microbial fossils on Earth, dating back 3.5 billion years. Mapping out the chemistry in rock textures with PIXL will offer scientists clues to interpret whether a sample could be a fossilized microbe.More About the MissionA key objective for Perseverance’s mission on Mars is astrobiology, including the search for signs of ancient microbial life. The rover will also characterize the planet’s climate and geology, pave the way for human exploration of the Red Planet, and be the first planetary mission to collect and cache Martian rock and regolith (broken rock and dust). Subsequent missions, currently under consideration by NASA in cooperation with the European Space Agency, would send spacecraft to Mars to collect these cached samples from the surface and return them to Earth for in-depth analysis.The Mars 2020 mission is part of a larger program that includes missions to the Moon as a way to prepare for human exploration of the Red Planet. Charged with returning astronauts to the Moon by 2024, NASA will establish a sustained human presence on and around the Moon by 2028 through NASA’s Artemis lunar exploration plans. Get our daily Pasadena newspaper in your email box. Free.Get all the latest Pasadena news, more than 10 fresh stories daily, 7 days a week at 7 a.m. Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * 95 recommended0 commentsShareShareTweetSharePin it STAFF REPORT Pasadena’s ‘626 Day’ Aims to Celebrate City, Boost Local Economy Science and Technology NASA’s New Mars Rover Will Use X-Rays to Hunt for Chemical Fingerprints Left by Ancient Microbes STAFF REPORT Published on Thursday, September 24, 2020 | 12:29 pm STAFF REPORT First Heatwave Expected Next Week Business News Top of the News EVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS CITY NEWS SERVICE/STAFF REPORT Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday More Cool Stuff faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,Virtual Schools PasadenaHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyCitizen Service CenterPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes Make a comment Name (required) Mail (required) (not be published) Website Subscribe Community News Home of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadena
Sign up for our COVID-19 newsletter to stay up-to-date on the latest coronavirus news throughout New York A coalition of environmentalists, clean energy advocates, labor leaders and Long Island lawmakers gathered at Gov. Andrew Cuomo’s Hauppauge office Wednesday to urge him to make wind power a priority next year.To show they have the wind at their backs, so to speak, they presented 12,944 signed petitions from New Yorkers collected statewide by the Sierra Club and the New York Public Interest and Research Group (NYPIRG) that call upon Cuomo to double the state’s current onshore wind capacity and develop new wind turbines offshore.The event drew bipartisan support from Assemb. Steve Englebright (D-East Setauket) and State Sen. Phil Boyle (R-Bay Shore).“Clean and renewable solar and wind power are essential to our energy future, and I encourage my colleagues and the governor to make meaningful progress in the upcoming legislative session to expand the role of solar and wind in our renewables portfolio” said Englebright.“Wind power is a clean, effective and efficient source of energy,” said Boyle. “Bringing wind power to Long Island will create jobs, boost the local economy and preserve the environment. We urge Governor Cuomo to promote this important source of power.”Marcia Byrstryn, president of New York League of Conservation Voters called wind energy a win-win for the environment and the economy.“Energy demand is increasing,” she said. “Rather than spend our dollars on out-of-state energy sources, New York has the opportunity to create jobs and ease grid congestion by generating clean power right on Long Island.”Cuomo is under pressure from the fossil fuel industry to approve hydraulic fracturing for natural gas in the state’s Marcellus Shale reserves but he recently postponed his decision until after the 2014 election pending a study by the state’s health commissioner.“New Yorkers know that we can’t frack our way to healthier communities, and burning more fossil fuels to produce energy will not solve the climate crisis,” said Joe Stelling, environmental campaign organizer for NYPIRG . “The state is failing to meet its clean energy goals, but a strong commitment to boosting wind energy production in New York can get us back on track while protecting public health and our environment.”Roger Clayman, executive director of the Long Island Federation of Labor, also threw his support behind the move.“By planning now for the transmission and generation of offshore wind energy, New York can be sure that this great resource will provide reliable clean energy to the public and substantial job opportunities to our skilled workforce for decades,” he said.“Long Island has an opportunity to chart a new energy path,” added David Alicea, a local Sierra Club organizer. “This outpouring of public support for wind power demonstrates that New Yorkers are ready for Governor Cuomo to make our state a national wind power leader.”
28SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr,Wendy Moody Wendy Moody is a Senior Editor with CUInsight.com. Wendy works with the editorial team to help edit the content including current news, press releases, jobs and events. She keeps … Web: www.cuinsight.com Details When you have free time on your hands, do you immediately jump on social media? It seems that the minute we have even the smallest bit of down time, we can’t wait to check our social accounts. But, is this really the best use of your time or the best way to better our lives? If you’re phone is handy and you’ve got spare time, instead of exploring social networks, check out these three interesting (and free!) apps that will actually better your personal and professional life.BlinkistYour full-time job is demanding and you’re always on the go. So, how in the world are you supposed to find time to boost your knowledge and explore new ideas and trends? With over one million users, Blinkist provides access to over 2,000 bestselling non-fiction titles in 15-minute summaries for reading and listening. Offering “big ideas in small packages,” Blinkist lets users explore over 19 categories from management and leadership to money and investments.BrightNestThis free home maintenance app offers users a variety of creative cleaning tricks, interior design advice, and general tips for keeping homeowners happy. BrightNest will send subscribers free customized tips for meeting maintenance goals and provides a scheduling tool for tasks and projects, complete with On-the-Go Reminders.Habit ListAre you working to better yourself but have difficulty staying motivated? Whether your goal is to develop new and better habits or drop bad ones, Habit List helps you “build a better you” by keeping you focused and on track with your goals. Just as the Fitbit motivates users to stay healthy by taking a certain number of steps each day, Habit List lets you decide what to work for and challenges you to stay committed and beat personal bests. The app tracks your daily “habits” and shows your progress and provides weekly and monthly reports on completion percentages.
The 7th grade volleyball team continues on in the Southeastern Indiana Tourney by defeating Jac-Cen-Del 25-16, 25-21.A lot of hustle was shown with good passing from Megan Sloan, Grace Sarringhaus, and Chloe Schroader. Nikki Fox led all hitter with 4 kills. McKenna DeFreese had 3 kills. Adding 1 kill each were Shalee Harrington, Kylie Laker, and Sarringhaus. Top servers were Laker with 10 points and Fox with 8 points. Good job, girls!The BMS 8th grade volleyball team defeated Jac-Cen-Del in the first round of the Southeastern Indiana Volleyball tourney in convincing fashion by the scores 25-11; 25-3.Abby Westerfeld led the team from the service line earning 19 points including an impressive 7 aces. Anna Bauer chipped in with 9 points including 4 aces and Kari Reer served 4 straight points in the 2nd game to end the match with 3 of those being aces. Macy Prickel led a balanced offensive attack with 5 kills, while Bauer, 4 kills, Westerfeld, 3 kills, and Kayla Meyer, 2 kills, each helped secure the win.The teams will face Sunman Dearborn in the 2nd round at St. Louis School’s Activity Center tomorrow at 5:30. Good luck, ladies! We believe in you!Courtesy of Bulldogs Coach Shelly Prickel.
Leicester City moved eight points clear at the top of the Premier League with a 1-0 victory away to Crystal Palace.Riyad Mahrez, who had earlier come close on two occasions, made the breakthrough on 34 minutes when he slotted home from Jamie Vardy’s assist.Palace, who last won a league game on Dec. 19, caused Leicester problems on the day and might have snatched a point when Damien Delaney volleyed against the crossbar in injury time.Claudio Ranieri’s men ultimately held on for a fourth 1-0 win in their last five games as they edge closer to an improbable title triumph.Second-placed Tottenham will have the chance to cut Leicester’s lead to five points when they host Bournemouth on Sunday. Arsenal beat Everton 2-0 at Goodison Park to end a run of three games without a win in the Premier League.Victory keeps alive Arsenal’s faint title hopes and ensures they will end the weekend in third place.Everton hit the woodwork through Seamus Coleman shortly after the kick-off, but within seven minutes played they were behind.Danny Welbeck, who had earlier deflected the ball against the outside of the post, latched onto Alexis Sanchez’s superb reverse pass and went around Everton keeper Joel Robles before slotting home.Sanchez saw a penalty appeal waved away on 35 minutes but the Gunners doubled their advantage soon afterwards when Alex Iwobi, making his first Premier League start, broke free on the counter to score his first league goal. Everton tried to spark a comeback in the second half but Arsenal’s victory always appeared secure as Arsene Wenger looks to ensure a strong finish to the season.Former West Ham goalkeeper Shaka Hislop does not feel Chelsea deserved any points in their 2-2 draw with West Ham.Two goals from Cesc Fabregas preserved Chelsea’s unbeaten Premier League run under Guus Hiddink as they drew 2-2 with West Ham United.Chelsea, who last lost in the Premier League in Jose Mourinho’s final game on Dec. 14, faced a tough test against a West Ham side making an unexpected push for Champions League qualification.They fell behind on 17 minutes when Manuel Lanzini produced a stunning goal, cutting inside before bending a shot into the top corner, but the scores were level by the break thanks to a superb Fabregas free kick. Aaron Cresswell nearly restored the Hammers’ lead just before the hour mark, but his cross-shot came back off the crossbar.Slaven Bilic’s men were soon 2-1 up, though, when Andy Carroll latched onto Dimitri Payet’s pass and thumped a shot past Thibaut Courtois in the Chelsea goal.However, Chelsea secured a share of the spoils when Fabregas converted a penalty in the 89th minute after Michail Antonio was deemed to have brought down Ruben Loftus-Cheek in the area.Norwich City moved out of the relegation zone as they beat West Bromwich Albion 1-0 for their first victory since Jan. 2. The Canaries, who had taken just two points from their 10 games since beating Southampton, scored their first goal away from Carrow Road since Jan. 13.After a quiet first half, Norwich broke the deadlock on 50 minutes when Matt Jarvis set up Robbie Brady to slot home.Norwich move three points clear of the drop zone but have played two games more than relegation rivals Sunderland and Newcastle, who meet at St James’ Park on Sunday.Stoke City got back to winning ways with 2-1 win away to Watford. Stoke, having taken just one point from their last two games, took the lead on 18 minutes when Jon Walters converted Phil Bardley’s cross following good work from Giannelli Imbula.Marko Arnautovic saw a goal correctly ruled out for offside before the break, but they extended their lead on 51 minutes when Walters set up Joselu to loft the ball over Watford keeper Heurelho Gomes.Watford pulled one back through Troy Deeney on 86 minutes but they could not force an equaliser as Stoke secure a victory that keeps them in contention for Europa League qualification.Federico Fernandez’s first Swansea goal eased their Premier League relegation fears as Aston Villa were beaten 1-0 at the Liberty Stadium. Fernandez had not scored in 57 appearances since signing from Napoli in August 2014 but he chose the perfect moment to open his account, even if the Argentina central defender actually knew little about it.Villa might have lost a man when Aly Cissokho received a stern lecture from referee Mike Dean rather than a second yellow card after the left-back brought down Modou Barrow after 53 minutes. Brad Guzan failed to collect Gylfi Sigurdsson’s free kick and the ball rolled into an empty net off Fernandez’s right shoulder. –Follow Joy Sports on Twitter: @JoySportsGH. Our hashtag is #JoySports
ST. LOUIS – Freshman Sara Rhine (Eldon, Mo.) of the Drake University women’s basketball team was named the Missouri Valley Conference Women’s Basketball Newcomer of the Week for the third time this season, the league office announced on Monday, Feb. 8. Rhine had outstanding performances in wins over Wichita State and Missouri State this past weekend averaging 16.0 points and 4.5 rebounds. Against Wichita State, she scored a game-high 16 points on 6-of-7 shooting, pulled down two rebounds, swatted a career-tying two blocks, handed out one assist and nabbed one steal in 21 minutes. Against Missouri State, she scored 16 points on 6-of-8 shooting and grabbed seven rebounds in just 18 minutes. Rhine is averaging 12.6 points and 6.8 rebounds per game while shooting a MVC-best 62.1 percent from the floor in her first season as a Bulldog. Rhine’s scoring and rebounding averages rank 15th and sixth, respectively, in the conference. Drake has road games at Illinois State on Feb. 12 at 7 p.m. and Indiana State Feb. 14 at 1 p.m. Both games will be online via On The Valley On ESPN3. Print Friendly Version
Snoop Dogg highlighted a diverse set of names at Game 4 of the NBA Finals that also included Apple CEO Tim Cook and Golden State Warriors legend Al Attles.Snoop, a Lakers fan, sat with fellow rapper E-40 courtside. Perhaps, he was doing some recruiting for Los Angeles. Meanwhile, singer-songerwriter Ne-Yo sang the national anthem while the band, Walk Off the Earth, performed “O Canada.” When it comes to sports stars, Attles and former Oakland A’s slugger Reggie Jackson were at the game.The …
Devoted to Charles Darwin, Ernst Haeckel was not above fabricating data to make his hero look better.150 years ago, Phys.org reports, the German biologist Ernst Haeckel invented the word phylogeny and drew up Darwin’s ideas into a branching picture that replaced the Biblical tree of life (an actual, tangible tree as described in Genesis and Revelation) with an evolutionary metaphor. Darwin had sketched a branching diagram to show how speciation might occur, but it was Haeckel who drew all of the world’s organisms arising from a single trunk. Two German science historians from Jena, Haeckel’s hometown, tell how this happened.Drawing on Darwin’s theory of evolution, Haeckel created the first Darwinian phylogenetic ‘tree of life’ of organisms exactly 150 years ago in Jena, and published it in his major work, the ‘General morphology of organisms’. In the current issue of the journal Nature, the historians of science and science education, Prof. Uwe Hoßfeld und Dr. habil. Georgy S. Levit of Friedrich Schiller University Jena in Germany, commemorate this anniversary.“The idea of visually representing species and their development was already known at the time,” says Levit. “However, earlier ideas never took into account the principle of monophyly and natural selection in speciation.” This connection first emerged through the evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin. The British naturalist sketched in his diary an idea for a tree of life in 1837 and presented it in the form of a diagram in his ground-breaking work ‘On the origin of species’ in 1859. Haeckel took up Darwin’s theory of evolution in his 1866 book, ‘General morphology of organisms’, and drew the first phylogenetic ‘family tree of organisms’, or tree of life. “Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of organisms,” explains Hoßfeld. “Because Haeckel was the first actually to define this term, in that same work, he was also the only person capable of representing the first tree of life of this kind.” To be more precise, Haeckel designed the monophyletic tree of life, because it shows all three kingdoms – animals, plants and Protista (organisms that cannot be classified as a plant, animal or fungus) – arising from a common root (‘Moneren Radix’).This metaphor has clouded observation for 150 years. Today, more biologists are describing a “web of life” or “network of life” (for instance, see Evolution News & Views about the data from hybridization that confuse the tree image). In addition, the data from paleontology (e.g., the Cambrian Explosion), show patterns of independent emergence and stasis, not a branching tree. But because of Haeckel’s propaganda that employed visualization in place of hard evidence, biologists ever since have been frustrated trying to force-fit the facts of nature into this mythical metaphor.So do the German historians point this out? No. They have nothing but praise for Haeckel, who is also notorious for fudging his data in his famous drawings of “Haeckel’s embryos” that falsely depicted organisms replaying their evolutionary history during development. Old ideas die hard; Stephen Jay Gould lambasted Haeckel’s “recapitulation theory” (7/26/10, 3/08/05) but his embryo drawings still turn up in biology textbooks and science papers. The “tree of life” remains ubiquitous.No better method has been devised to date for illustrating biodiversity. New techniques and methodologies may have come into use, and trees of life are now presented as cladograms, diagrams, etc., but the principle remains the same. “It is quite simply the best and clearest way of representing the results of biological research in this area,” notes Hoßfeld.The journal Nature celebrated Haeckel’s tree of life, pleasing Hoßfeld no end.For us it is always a success when our scientific fields attract the attention they deserve,” says Hoßfeld, who has seen six of his articles published in Nature. “It shows us that there continues to be great interest in the history of science and science education, and that they are repeatedly able to make a contribution to current debate,” adds Levit, who has had three publications in the British journal. For Friedrich Schiller University itself, such publications are evidence that Jena’s long academic tradition is consistently able to produce up-to-the-minute research.Is it a “contribution” to current debate to cloud evidence with pictures? Like Phys.org, Nature mentions nothing about fraud. “As thousands of scientists and policymakers gather in Mexico this month for the COP13 summit on biodiversity … we should take a moment to celebrate the earliest ‘tree of life’ model of biodiversity.”It doesn’t seem to matter to these evolutionists that the branches have been repeatedly cut down and grafted in all kinds of contradictory ways (see example on Phys.org about where to put placoderms, titled “Our ideas about vertebrate evolution challenged by a new tree of life”). Jonathan Keith’s “tree of life” posted on The Conversation looks vastly different from Haeckel’s. Keith seems to think we shouldn’t allow nasty facts to get in the way of a pretty picture. We don’t want to disturb the unwashed masses.You’ve seen them in popular science news, biology textbooks, wall plaques in museums, perhaps even as tattoos. Evolutionary trees are among the most instantly recognisable, ubiquitous and iconic images of science. At the end of his article, “How to grow an evolutionary tree,” he does ask, “Can you trust an evolutionary tree?” While giving room for skepticism, he concludes that we can trust these visualizations, at least the ones that try to tease out details of certain branches, like his favorite, the tree of mammals.Any evolutionary tree should be regarded with healthy scepticism. They are working hypotheses that are likely to be revised as new evidence comes to light.It is not possible to set aside all biases and preconceived ideas when inferring evolutionary trees, because even the methodology is based on assumptions about how evolution works.But the better one understands the models and methods, the more one appreciates that trees are not mere guesses, nor even summaries of expert opinion.They are products of careful and principled science informed by statistics.Keith makes an incoherent argument. On the one hand, he admits to biases and preconceived ideas. On the other hand, he simply appeals to authority. Trust the experts, he says; they’re doing their best (cf. 12/05/16). And we all know that statistics never lie.Would any of these Haeckel devotees ever take their “healthy skepticism” to the point of considering the possibility that the whole tree is a myth? Would they ever chop it down? Unlikely; it forms a key link in the materialist chain of molecules to man.Recommended resource: See the chapter on “Tree of Life” in Icons of Evolution by Jonathan Wells. There’s a summary in this article on ARN.org. In another article on ARN, he responds to Eugenie Scott’s criticisms.For fun, see our 2/01/07 article and commentary about Darwin’s sacred tree. (Visited 51 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0